‘Beyond risk management: vulnerability, social protection and citizenship in Pakistan’ Journal of International Development Vol. 22 (1): 1-19

The paper below highlights rights-based approaches to social protection. According to this conceptualisation, all people have the right to a minimum income due to their citizenship rights, and access to enough resources to allow them to live their lives in dignity. Therefore, it argues, the role of social protection is not to provide relief, but redistribution. Given that poverty and inequality result partly from lack of access to secure and adequately-paid employment, it becomes the responsibility of the state to alleviate the social consequences of market failures by providing social services, and thus to ensure the right to inclusion.

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